The Senses

Published: 2021-06-29 07:06:03
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The Senses
* The human being is able to communicate with the surrounding environment because of a miraculous network of nerves coordinated with the organs of the five special senses, which allow us to see, hear, taste, smell, and touch.
* For additional protection, the outside of the eye is covered with tough, white fibrous tissue called the sclera.
* Under the sclera is another covering called the choroid, which contains the blood vessels that serve the tissues of the eye.
* Bothe the eye and the camera have a lens to focus and image onto a surface for "recording." In the camera this surface is the film or the sensors in a digital camera. In the eye it is the retina.
* In the camera the distance between the film and the camera lens is adjusted to bring the picture into focus before it is recorded on the film. In the eye, the shape of the elastic lens is automatically altered by ciliary muscles of the ciliary body to focus objects onto the retina. When the ciliary body contracts, the lens becomes rounder in a process known as accommodation to permit near vision.
* The aperture of the camera is similar to the iris of the eye; the size of their openings is adjusted to allow varying amounts of light to enter.
* When the light is bright, the circular muscle fibers of the iris contract, reducing the size of the pupil, thereby permitting less light to enter.
* If the cornea develops an abnormal shape, vision becomes blurred and the result may be a disorder known as astigmatism.
* A mucous membrane called the conjunctiva lines the inner surfaces of the eyelids and covers the anterior sclera surface of the eye.
* Aqueous humor-a watery, transparent liquid that circulates between the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye.
* Amblyopia-a condition known as lazy eye because it causes the turning eye to become "lazy." It is most prevalent in children under the age of 5.
* Arcus Senilis- The condition accompanies normal aging and is included in this discussion because it is so prevalent. It results in a thin grayish-white arc or circle not quite at the edge of the cornea. If it is present in young people, it may suggest hypercholesterolemia (high level of cholesterol in the blood.)
* Blepharitis (Lid Margin Disease)- This is a persistent inflammation of the edges of the eyelids involving the hair follicles and glands. The condition is usually associated with seborrhea of the scalp (dandruff), oily skin, or dry eyes.
* Cataract-This gradually developing opacity (cloudiness) of the lens occurs most frequently in persons over 70 years of age as part of the aging process.
* Conjunctivitis-This condition is caused by inflammation of the conjunctiva. It usually begins in one eye, spreading rapidly to the other from contamination by a wash cloth or by the hands. Because it is highly contagious, other family members should not share towels, wash cloths, or pillows with the infected persons.

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