Who Is Karl Marx? What Is an Ideal Society?

Published: 2021-06-29 07:11:44
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What is an ideal society? How does an ideal society works? How is justice achieved? Equality, all-round knowledge, classless, common ownership- are Karl Marx's vision of a well-organized and a just state.
Who is Karl Marx? Karl Marx is a philosopher, social scientist, historian and revolutionary. He has been dubbed as the most influential socialist thinker to emerge in 19th century. As he wanted to help the revolutionists, he conducted a thorough research formulating his own just society along the way.
In Marx's research, he had seen that history was driven by different class struggles. He presented 5 different sets of social-economic relations namely, primitive communism, slavery, feudalism, capitalism and communism.
Primitive communism dates to the time of hunt-gather life of the primitive people. In the primitive communities, the means of production are socially owned. This common ownership was the consequence of the very primitive tools or instruments of production available. Because the tools are simple and limited, there wasn't a fine line to separate the labour. For the people are grouped into small groups, everyone in the tribe have to work for each other in order to survive. The able-bodies hunt and gather food for the whole community with each getting an equal share of food.
This primitive communism gradually ceased by the improvement of techniques which lead to the division of labour, formation of private property, and commodity exchange. During hunting, hunters exchange in simple, direct relations with one another. The lands they own and the animals they captured aren't regarded as personal properties but as a property of the whole tribe. However, when people were introduced to agriculture and domestication of animals, the division of labour started. As long as there are certain people who specializes a particular field of production, the division of labour will continue to expand. Sooner or later, the instrument or tools of that field will belong to those specialized people. The instruments would be regarded as the property of particular persons and so does the products created. "The rise of private property in herds and articles of luxury" wrote Engels in his origin of the family, Private Property and the State (chap. 5) "led to exchange between individuals to the transformation of products into commodities" (p. 41) Commodities are the products produced as an exchange for other products. Commodity exchange will further break up the old communal relations. The continuous growth of private property and commodity exchange will result to the division of community into haves and have-nots, and possessors and dispossessed.

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